Christmas Holidays in Japan

Japan is one of the most beautiful and unusual countries, where even Christmas holidays are celebrated in a very interesting way. Usually many Japanese go to temples on New Year’s, pray, and Japanese girls wear long, closed and beautiful dresses called kimano at such traditional events.The arrival of the new year is announced with 108 bells. They say that there are 108 pernicious worries, and each blow drives away one of them, bringing only happiness in the coming year.

On New Years in Japan, their traditional games are often played, and it is also considered a tradition to give money to children, this tradition is called otoshidama. Money is usually placed in small decorated envelopes called potibukuro. The amount of money that is put in an envelope depends on the age of the child, but if there are several children in the family, then the amounts are usually the same so that no one feels deprived.



1. A barista

Beige a barista is an interesting job because you meet new people everyday day plus making coffee is fun.


The Pros

1. You can financially help yourself and your parents.

2. You’ll be more confident, independent, and comfortable around strangers as the time goes on if you work as a barista or a job the requires communicating or being around people.

3. you’ll be able to treat your family or friends with little gifts here and there to make them happy.

The Cons

1. Having a part time job can have bad impact on your education if you dont organize your time.

2. The job itself might be very tiring for you can ruin your mood.

3. It can affect your rest time so you’ll be overworked.


  1. So many teens are succeeding in saving and that’s great.
  2. Research shows working while studying may be detrimental to high school graders.
  3. My teacher appreciated my getting a good grade


1. I cant help being considered irreplaceable even if im not

2. She supported i sacking which really upsets me.

3. Didn’t receive good results, i stand a little chance of getting into uni.

4. Got the job , i now regret applying

5. He was in the middle of telling off when i walked into the room.

6. Having a reliable source of income can be a strain on any family.


1. You develop a better sense of responsibility when your own money.

Earning your own money develops a better sense of responsibility.

2. I really don’t like to be told what to do.

I really don’t like being told what to do

3. The concern my parents have is that i work to hard.

My parents are concerning about me having to work hard

4. To be successful in life you are required to work hard.

Being successful in life you are required to work hard.

5. I tell my parents as soon as I receive any exam results.

On seeing the exam results , I immediately tell my parents.

6. The job market has got increasingly competitive so its essential to have good qualifications.

The job market is being increasingly competitive , good qualifications are essential.



  1. I haven’t watched TV for more than a week

I’ve seen this movie before.

This cinema has been showing the same films for weeks now.

If you’ve lost your ticket , you can’t come in.

You’ve been reading TV guide for an hour.Can I have a look now?

2. Chat show

Game programe

Drama series

Sit com

Sports show

The news

3. DANNY: Ben it’s my turn to watch TV.

BEN: just give me twenty more minutes.

DANNY: but you’ve been watching TV for more then two hours.Your not even allowed to watch so much TV.Does mom know?

BEN: yes , she does.Anyway I’m almost finished

DANNY: yes but I want to watch the news and it starts in five minutes.

BEN: you can watch it later.I really need to see the end of this.

DANNY: what is that your watching anyway?

BEN: CrimeWave

DANNY: What ,that American drama serials?

BEN: Yes ,that’s the one.its the last episode in the series.I can’t miss it.I watched all the others. I want to know how it ends.

DANNY: I’ll tell you how it ends.The policeman’s the murderer. Now let me watch my show.



Are the sentences true or false?

1.Fisherman’s Wharf, Ghirardelli Square and Pier 39 are all in San Francisco.


2. The Golden Gate Bridge is the shortest suspension bridge in the world.


3. Alcatraz is still a prison today.


4. You can see a surfboard damaged in a shark attack in the museum in Santa Cru. 


5.Ice skating is a popular activity on Venice Beach.TrueFalse6. You can meet real film stars at Madame Tussauds in Hollywood.


6. You can meet real film stars at Madame Tussauds in Hollywood.


7. The Grammy Museum in Los Angeles is dedicated to music and dance. 


8. Space Mountain is the name of one of the hotels in Disneyland.




Present Perfect Tenses — Exercise 3

Complete with the present perfect simple or the present perfect progressive.
1. It has been raining all day. (rain)
2. How long have you been waiting for me? (you wait)
3. I have known my girlfriend for two months. (know)
4. I have done my homework. Now I can go out. (do)
5. I have been doing my homework for three hours. (do)
6. What has she been doing all afternoon (she do)? She has been reading that book you lent her, but she has not finished it yet. (read / not finish)
7. Amanda is a famous film star. She has made about ten films. (make)
8. What countries have you already visited ? (you already visit)
9. Mike has had a cold since last Thursday. (have)
10. I’m tired. I have been working very hard today. (work)
11. Susan has tried to reach you by phone several times. (try)
12.He has never danced with Kate. (never dance)
13. Someone has eaten my chocolate. (eat)
14. How long has she been working as a lawyer? (she work)
15. We have been living here for eight years. (live)

Present Perfect Tenses — Exercise 4

Complete with the present perfect simple or the present perfect progressive.
1. We have been playing basketball for the last few hours. (play)
2. She has never lived in Berlin. (never live)
3. There have been a lot of earthquakes in California. (be)
4. It has been raining hard since yesterday evening. (rain)
5. They have already planned a birthday party for her. (already plan)
6. The department store is still closed. It has not opened yet. (not open)
7. They have been living in Boston since they arrived in the USA ten years ago. (live)
8. Have you been working on anything interesting lately? (you work)
9. His company has made a lot of money in the last years. (make)
10. I left her a message but she has not called me back yet. (not call)
11. My wife is exhausted because she has been working too hard all day. (work)

12. How many times Have you taken this exam? (you take)
13. The actress has deserved this award for a long time. (deserve)
14. Amanda has been learning Italian for more than three years. (learn)
15. How long has she studied French? (she study)

Present Perfect Tenses — Exercise 5

Fill in the present perfect simple or the present perfect progressive.
3. They have been repairing the car since three o’ clock and they have not finished yet. (repair / not finish)
4. He has already arrived at the airport. (already arrive)
5. How long has he been waiting for Linda? (he wait)
6. Have you bought all the presents yet? (you buy)
7. He has just passed the driving test. (just pass)
8. They have been playing cards all day. (play)
9. She has never met him before. (never meet)
10. She has not seen her since Friday. (not see)
11. We have been learning English since 5 years. (learn)
12. They have been looking for him all day but they have not found him yet. (look / not find)
14. Fred and Jim have been learning for their exam all day. (learn)
15. The girls have been swimming in the pool for two hours. (swim)

Exercise on Present Perfect Simple

Put the verbs into the correct form (present perfect simple).

  1. I have not worked today.
  2. We have bought a new lamp.
  3. We have not planned our holiday yet.
  4. Where have you been ?
  5. He has written five letters.
  6. She has not seen him for a long time.
  7. Have you been at school?
  8. School has not started yet.
  9. Has he spoken to his boss?
  10. No, he has not had the time yet.


1. Drinking red wine in small doses is better for you than not drinking at all!

It might come as a surprise, but several human trial studies have shown moderate red wine consumption to be better for you than not drinking at all. Why? The antioxidants found in red wine lower incidences of cardiovascular disease, mortality, and type-2 diabetes. Of course, if you drink more than you’re supposed to, the benefits are replaced by increased health risks. So, do yourself a favor.

2. Red wine’s health benefits come from tannin.

Pretty much everything in wine that’s not alcohol or water is a type of polyphenol. Polyphenols include tannin, color pigment, wine aromas, resveratrol, and about 5,000 other plant compounds. Of these polyphenols, the most abundant in wine for health reasons are Procyanidins, which are a type of condensed tannin also found in green tea and dark chocolate. This compound is specifically associated with inhibiting cholesterol plaque in blood vessels, which is highly beneficial to heart health and longevity.

3. Some red wines are better for you than others.

Not all red wines are made the same. Some wines have significantly higher levels of “good for you stuff” than others (condensed tannins–see above). For example, Caberbet Sauvignon has more condensed tannins than Pinot Noir, but both wines have much less than Tannat, Petite Sirah, or Sagrantino. While it’s rather difficult to determine which wines are best (exactly), here are some clues:

  1. Dry red wines are better than sweet wines.
  2. Red wines with lower alcohol (preferably below 13% ABV) are better than high alcohol wines.
  3. Red wines with higher tannin (those that are more astringent) are better than low tannin wines.

4. Young red wines are better for you than old red wines.

We’ve been told for years that old wines are the best wines. It’s true that some wines taste better when well-aged, but when it comes to the health aspects of wine, old wine isn’t as good! Young red wines contain greater tannin levels than any other type of wine.

5. The color in red wine comes from the grape skins.

The color in wine comes from a plant pigment called anthocyanin, which is found in the skins of red grapes.

6. As red wines age, they become lighter in color.

The color becomes less intense as wine agesVery old wines are pale and translucent in color.

7. Nearly all red wines are made from one species of grape.

All of the most common red wines, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot, and Pinot Noir are of just one species of grape: Vitis vinifera. There are certainly other species used for wine (there are some 65-70 vitis species), but they are very rarely used for wine. Vitis vinifera is commonly considered the wine grape species. And, get this, Vitis vinifera didn’t originate in France. It came from Eastern Europe!

8. Red grapes are older than white wine grapes.

The yellow and green-colored grapes that produce white wines are thought to have originally come from a DNA mutation of red grapevines. This is a pretty convincing hypothesis, since Pinot Noir and Pinot Blanc share the same DNA.

9. Red wines commonly contain less sulfites than white wines.

In general, sulfite levels in red wines are lower than white wines. This is because red wines tend to be more chemically stable than white wines and do not degrade as quickly.

10. Red wine grapes can be made into white wine.

Because the color comes from grape skins (and not the juice), it’s possible to make a white wine out of red grapes. The wine is made like white wine without contact with the grape skins. This happens more than you might imagine. For example, a Blanc de Noirs Champagne is a white sparkling wine made with Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier (red) grapes.



1. Hi Ann, speak of the devil, I was just telling my mom that you are great writer.

2. I’m going outside once in blue moon.

3. I will do that when pigs fly.

4. They really cut corners when they send me this.

5. Don’t judge the book by his cover maybe he’s a good guy.

6. Before the performance they wish me break a leg.

7. I had no choice so I decided to let the cat out of the bag.

8. We talk about everything except the elephant in the room.

9. Betty has work for hour on those irregular Spanish verbs, but no pain no gain

10. Are you feeling under weather today?







“Do the scientists really know? Will it happen today, will it?”

“Look, look; see for yourself!”

The children pressed to each other like so many roses, so many weeds, intermixed, peering out for a look at the hidden sun.

It rained.

It had been raining for seven years; thousands upon thousands of days compounded and filled from one end to the other with rain, with the drum and gush of water, with the sweet crystal fall of showers and the concussion of storms so heavy they were tidal waves come over the islands. A thousand forests had been crushed under the rain and grown up a thousand times to be crushed again. And this was the way life was forever on the planet Venus, and this was the school room of the children of the rocket men and women who had come to a raining world to set up civilization and live out their lives.

“It’s stopping, it’s stopping!”

“Yes, yes!”

Margot stood apart from them, from these children who could ever remember a time when there wasn’t rain and rain and rain. They were all nine years old, and if there had been a day, seven years ago, when the sun came out for an hour and showed its face to the stunned world, they could not recall. Sometimes, at night, she heard them stir, in remembrance, and she knew they were dreaming and remembering gold or a yellow crayon or a coin large enough to buy the world with. She knew they thought they remembered a warmness, like a blushing in the face, in the body, in the arms and legs and trembling hands. But then they always awoke to the tatting drum, the endless shaking down of clear bead necklaces upon the roof, the walk, the gardens, the forests, and their dreams were gone.

All day yesterday they had read in class about the sun. About how like a lemon it was, and how hot. And they had written small stories or essays or poems about it:

I think the sun is a flower,
That blooms for just one hour.

That was Margot’s poem, read in a quiet voice in the still classroom while the rain was falling outside.

“Aw, you didn’t write that!” protested one of the boys.

“I did,” said Margot. “I did.”

“William!” said the teacher.

But that was yesterday. Now the rain was slackening, and the children were crushed in the great thick windows.

Where’s teacher?”

“She’ll be back.”

“She’d better hurry, we’ll miss it!”

Unknown words

Peering — Peering is a process by which two Internet networks connect and exchange traffic. 

Gush — to flow out or issue suddenly, copiously, or forcibly, as a fluid from confinement.

Stunned — to deprive of consciousness or strength.

They turned on themselves, like a feverish wheel, all tumbling spokes. Margot stood alone. She was a very frail girl who looked as if she had been lost in the rain for years and the rain had washed out the blue from her eyes and the red from her mouth and the yellow from her hair. She was an old photograph dusted from an album, whitened away, and if she spoke at all her voice would be a ghost. Now she stood, separate, staring at the rain and the loud wet world beyond the huge glass.

“What’re you looking at?” said William.

Margot said nothing.

“Speak when you’re spoken to.”

He gave her a shove. But she did not move; rather she let herself be moved only by him and nothing else. They edged away from her, they would not look at her. She felt them go away. And this was because she would play no games with them in the echoing tunnels of the underground city. If they tagged her and ran, she stood blinking after them and did not follow. When the class sang songs about happiness and life and games her lips barely moved. Only when they sang about the sun and the summer did her lips move as she watched the drenched windows. And then, of course, the biggest crime of all was that she had come here only five years ago from Earth, and she remembered the sun and the way the sun was and the sky was when she was four in Ohio. And they, they had been on Venus all their lives, and they had been only two years old when last the sun came out and had long since forgotten the color and heat of it and the way it really was.

But Margot remembered.

“It’s like a penny,” she said once, eyes closed.

“No it’s not!” the children cried.

“It’s like a fire,” she said, “in the stove.”

“You’re lying, you don’t remember!” cried the children.

But she remembered and stood quietly apart from all of them and watched the patterning windows. And once, a month ago, she had refused to shower in the school shower rooms, had clutched her hands to her ears and over her head, screaming the water mustn’t touch her head. So after that, dimly, dimly, she sensed it, she was different and they knew her difference and kept away. There was talk that her father and mother were taking her back to Earth next year; it seemed vital to her that they do so, though it would mean the loss of thousands of dollars to her family. And so, the children hated her for all these reasons of big and little consequence. They hated her pale snow face, her waiting silence, her thinness, and her possible future.

“Get away!” The boy gave her another push. “What’re you waiting for?”

Then, for the first time, she turned and looked at him. And what she was waiting for was in her eyes.

“Well, don’t wait around here!” cried the boy savagely. “You won’t see nothing!”

Her lips moved.

“Nothing!” he cried. “It was all a joke, wasn’t it?” He turned to the other children. “Nothing’s happening today. Is it?”

They all blinked at him and then, understanding, laughed and shook their heads.

“Nothing, nothing!”

“Oh, but,” Margot whispered, her eyes helpless. “But this is the day, the scientists predict, they say, they know, the sun…”

“All a joke!” said the boy, and seized her roughly. “Hey, everyone, let’s put her in a closet before the teacher comes!”

“No,” said Margot, falling back.

They surged about her, caught her up and bore her, protesting, and then pleading, and then crying, back into a tunnel, a room, a closet, where they slammed and locked the door. They stood looking at the door and saw it tremble from her beating and throwing herself against it. They heard her muffled cries. Then, smiling, the turned and went out and back down the tunnel, just as the teacher arrived.

“Ready, children?” She glanced at her watch.

“Yes!” said everyone.

“Are we all here?”


The rain slacked still more.

They crowded to the huge door.

The rain stopped.

It was as if, in the midst of a film concerning an avalanche, a tornado, a hurricane, a volcanic eruption, something had, first, gone wrong with the sound apparatus, thus muffling and finally cutting off all noise, all of the blasts and repercussions and thunders, and then, second, ripped the film from the projector and inserted in its place a beautiful tropical slide which did not move or tremor. The world ground to a standstill. The silence was so immense and unbelievable that you felt your ears had been stuffed or you had lost your hearing altogether. The children put their hands to their ears. They stood apart. The door slid back and the smell of the silent, waiting world came in to them.

The sun came out.

It was the color of flaming bronze and it was very large. And the sky around it was a blazing blue tile color. And the jungle burned with sunlight as the children, released from their spell, rushed out, yelling into the springtime.

“Now, don’t go too far,” called the teacher after them. “You’ve only two hours, you know. You wouldn’t want to get caught out!”

But they were running and turning their faces up to the sky and feeling the sun on their cheeks like a warm iron; they were taking off their jackets and letting the sun burn their arms.

“Oh, it’s better than the sun lamps, isn’t it?”

“Much, much better!”

They stopped running and stood in the great jungle that covered Venus, that grew and never stopped growing, tumultuously, even as you watched it. It was a nest of octopi, clustering up great arms of fleshlike weed, wavering, flowering in this brief spring. It was the color of rubber and ash, this jungle, from the many years without sun. It was the color of stones and white cheeses and ink, and it was the color of the moon.

The children lay out, laughing, on the jungle mattress, and heard it sigh and squeak under them resilient and alive. They ran among the trees, they slipped and fell, they pushed each other, they played hide-and-seek and tag, but most of all they squinted at the sun until the tears ran down their faces; they put their hands up to that yellowness and that amazing blueness and they breathed of the fresh, fresh air and listened and listened to the silence which suspended them in a blessed sea of no sound and no motion. They looked at everything and savored everything. Then, wildly, like animals escaped from their caves, they ran and ran in shouting circles. They ran for an hour and did not stop running.

And then –

In the midst of their running one of the girls wailed.

Everyone stopped.

The girl, standing in the open, held out her hand.

“Oh, look, look,” she said, trembling.

They came slowly to look at her opened palm.

In the center of it, cupped and huge, was a single raindrop. She began to cry, looking at it. They glanced quietly at the sun.

“Oh. Oh.”

A few cold drops fell on their noses and their cheeks and their mouths. The sun faded behind a stir of mist. A wind blew cold around them. They turned and started to walk back toward the underground house, their hands at their sides, their smiles vanishing away.

A boom of thunder startled them and like leaves before a new hurricane, they tumbled upon each other and ran. Lightning struck ten miles away, five miles away, a mile, a half mile. The sky darkened into midnight in a flash.

They stood in the doorway of the underground for a moment until it was raining hard. Then they closed the door and heard the gigantic sound of the rain falling in tons and avalanches, everywhere and forever.

“Will it be seven more years?”

“Yes. Seven.”

Then one of them gave a little cry.



“She’s still in the closet where we locked her.”


They stood as if someone had driven them, like so many stakes, into the floor. They looked at each other and then looked away. They glanced out at the world that was raining now and raining and raining steadily. They could not meet each other’s glances. Their faces were solemn and pale. They looked at their hands and feet, their faces down.


One of the girls said, “Well…?”

No one moved.

“Go on,” whispered the girl.

They walked slowly down the hall in the sound of cold rain. They turned through the doorway to the room in the sound of the storm and thunder, lightning on their faces, blue and terrible. They walked over to the closet door slowly and stood by it.

Behind the closet door was only silence.

They unlocked the door, even more slowly, and let Margot out.



The sun is shining,
The sun is warming,
The sun always smiles,
And every day in the summer.

fill – cause (a space or container) to become full or almost full. (լրացնել)

stir – move a spoon or other implement round in (a liquid or other substance) in order to mix it thoroughly. (խառնել)

feverish  – having or showing the symptoms of a fever. (բորբոքված)

shove – push (someone or something) roughly. (խոթել)